Green coffee beans are naturally soft, spongy to the bite and smells like grass, but when it’s dried and roasted, the deep aroma and flavor of the coffee comes out and produces a staple ingredient to one of the world’s best brewed drink – coffee.
The process of producing coffee is by roasting the green coffee beans on a gradual phase such that when the desired temperature is reached, an aroma, which is characteristic of coffee, is emitted and the roasted beans are now in a state which can be referred to as coffee. Green coffee beans contain levels of amino acids, protein, sugars and caffeine, a stimulant which is linked with the central nervous system, but as soon as they are roasted, a Maillard reaction takes place, which is a chemical reaction between amino acids and sugars take place, and the effect is brown, roasted beans that possess a distinct aroma and flavor.
The art of roasting coffee is an accumulation of years of training, expertly reading when the beans are on the roasted temperature and time, which can make a difference between good aroma and flavor and a burnt flavor. Only coffee masters know how to produce the four categories of roasted coffee – light, medium, medium-dark, and dark. The same wonderful coffee aroma comes out of all these kinds of roasted coffee; however, it is in the flavor that each possess a distinct taste.
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Sound is a good indicator of the roasting temperature, such that there are two temperatures to watch during roasting, which produce a distinct sound in each, – temperature at 196 degrees Centigrade which emits the first crack sound, marking the beginning of a light roast coffee, and at 224 degrees Centigrade, which emits the second crack.
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Light roasts coffee are light brown in color and characteristic of having no presence of oil on the surface because they have not been roasted long enough for the oils to come out. Light roast coffee are marketed into familiar names, such as Light City, Half City, and Cinnamon Coffee.
Roasting further the light roast coffee can produce what is known as medium roast coffee, which is of medium brown, has a stronger flavor than light roast coffee and, still, non-oily. Their special names come as City Coffee, American Coffee, and Breakfast Coffee.
For medium dark roast coffee, the results come out as a rich, dark color coffee, slightly oily, and having a bittersweet aftertaste. Medium dark roast coffee is also referred to as Full City coffee.
These are the distinct characteristics of dark roast coffee – shiny due to the oil that comes out during roasting, has a bitter taste, less acidity and slightly dark to charred color. These are the popular names of dark roast coffee beans – High, Continental, New Orleans, European, Espresso, Viennese, Italian, and French.